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[GMAT阅读] 经济学人双语阅读 [复制链接]

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    发表于 2018-4-24 11:55:22 |显示全部楼层

    2.24 经济学人经济类文章精读

    2018-04-24 VIOLA 英语学志

    Driving

    One country, three system

    一个国家,三个系统


    In big cities a licence plate can cost more than a car. Yet there is an alternative

    在大城市,一张牌照比一辆车还贵,然而现在有另一个选择。


    关键词:

    quota of car plate

    quota 定额,指标

    eg. The quota of four tickets per person had been reduced to two (每人可购买的票的限额已经由四张降至两张)

    lottery draw

    lottery:福利彩票

    draw:抽签

    这里指的是车牌摇号的过程

    auction

    拍卖

    contend for/vie

    =compete for

    4.19分享的文中有一个类似的单词:up for grabs(可被争夺的)


    句子精读:

    Song Jianguo, then head of the city’s traffic management bureau, was jailed for life in 2015 for demandingbackhanders in exchange for rigging the lottery.

    backhander:

    回扣,贿赂

    eg. In the past, tourism backhander was seriously forbidon; but no much effects were noted.(内容提要非法旅游回扣问题一直以来严重影响着我国旅游业健康发展)

    rig:

    操纵

    eg. She accused her opponents of rigging the vote(她谴责对手操纵投票)

    句式结构:

    Song Jianguo, ....., was jailed

    注意:

    1 head of the city's traffic management bureau与Song Jianguo是同位语的关系

    2 be jailed for life in 2015 for demanding... 第一个for life 表示入狱的时长,第二个for后面表示的是入狱的原因,这里两个for都是介词。

    意思:

    宋建国是交通管理局局长,2015年时候,他因收取回扣并操纵摇号交易被判入狱。

    But in class-conscious Shanghai, owning a car is as much a status symbol as a means of transport.

    class-conscious :

    分级模式

    class:阶级

    句式结构:

    Owning a car is as much as a means

    注意:

    as much as 用法:

    1 as much as :和...一样多(数量、程度等均可)

    eg. I have helped you as much as I can. (我尽可能多的帮助你)

    2 as much ....as:和...一样多

    eg. I don't have as much responsibility as before(我没有原来那么大的责任了)

    = I don't have responsibility as much as before

    3 不仅....,而且....

    例如:

    本句=Owning a car is a status symbol as much as a means of transportation

    意思:

    但是在上海阶级观念较重的地方,拥有一辆车不仅是有一个交通工具,而且是一种地位的象征。


    文章难度:

    ★★

    (没有复杂句式,个别高级单词,适宜7-9分钟内读完)


    阅读原文请关注公众号:“英语学志”




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    发表于 2018-4-26 11:43:41 |显示全部楼层
    4.26 美国科学人人工智能选段精读原创 2018-04-26 VIOLA 英语学志

    PREDICTION MACHINE

    可以进行预测的机器




    关键词:


    prediction:

    预测

    文中还有forecast


    computational neuroscience:

    计算神经学

    neuroscience是一个合成词,将neural和science组合


    computer algorithms:

    计算机算法(云算法就可以用这个词)

    人工智能中,算法用algorithm,计算用compute




    选句精读


    The nerve cells in the eye process basic features of an image before transferring this information to higher-level regions that interpret the overall meaning of a scene.


    interpret:

    说明,解释

    eg.  The whole speech might well be interpreted as a coded message to the Americans (整个演讲完全可以看成是在向美国人传递编码信息)


    句式结构:

    The nerve cells process basic features.....

    注意:

    1 指代:this 一般就近指代,因此this information指代的是前文basic features of an image

    2 before后跟随的独立主格结构,独立主格结构使用时需要该从句和主句主语一致,因此原句还原 before the nerve cells transfer....


    意思:

    眼睛里的神经细胞处理基本的视觉影像,然后将这些影像信息传输给更高一级的区域解读这些影像的总体含义。


    Crucially, the downward signals from the higher levels of the brain continually interact with the “upward” signals from the senses, generating a prediction error: the difference between what we expect and what we experience.


    interact:

    互动

    inter-:前缀,表示相互之间的意思

    eg.Internet表示网之间,international表示国家之间


    句式结构:

    the downward signals...interact with.....

    注意:

    1 该句定语修饰较多,要分清楚

       I from the higher levels 修饰downward signals

       IIfrom the senses修饰upward signals

    2 generate a prediction error是状语从句修饰前文


    意思:

    重要的是:从脑中高层级发出的向下信号持续与从感官发出的向上信号互动,会产生一个错误的预判:我们所期待的和我们所经历的不一致。


    In this computational experiment, published in 1999 in Nature Neuroscience, the researchers simulated neuronal connections in the visual cortex—complete with(包括) downward connections carrying forecasts and upward connections bringing sensory signals from the outside world.


    complete with:

    包括=include

    simulate:

    模仿,模拟


    句式结构:

    researchers simulated neuronal connections....

    注意:

    1 破折号后面是对前面neuronal connections in the visual cortex 的补充说明


    意思:

    这个计算实验发表在1999年自然神经科学杂志上,在这个实验中,研究者们模拟视觉皮质的神经链接----包括带有预测信息的向下的链接和带有外部世界感官信息的向上的链接。




    难度:

    ★★★☆

    (句子较长,修饰较多,专业性强)


    原文阅读请关注:“英语学志”



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    发表于 2018-4-28 11:06:21 |显示全部楼层
    4.28 科学美国人杂志人工智能精读2018-04-28 VIOLA 英语学志

    COUNTING WITH FINGERS

    用手指数数





    关键词:


    count with fingers:

    用手指数数


    procure knowledge:

    获取知识

    procure:获取、得到

    procure sb. sth

    procure sth for sb

    eg. It remained very difficult to procure food, fuel and other daily necessities.(食物、燃料和其他日用必需品仍然很难得到)


    Android:

    机器人=robot

    安卓这个词就是Android的音译,原指机器人

    相对应的一个词是人类:humanoid


    associate:

    =link=relate

    文章主要用到了associate的名词association,将机器人也可以通过简单联想学习基本单词





    句子精读:


    It comes with no preprogrammed functions, allowing scientists to implement algorithms specific to their experiments.


    implement:

    实施、执行

    eg.The government promised to implement a new system to control financial loan institutions (政府许诺实施新的制度来控制金融贷款机构)


    come with:

    跟随...一起发生

    eg. Success always comes with painstakingly efforts. (努力才能成功)


    句子结构:

    It comes with .....

    注意:

    1 it 指代前文的icub

    2 allowing...作为状语修饰整句话,表明前面没有预装程序的机器人的作用

    3 specific to...修饰algorithms


    意思:

    它没有与编程序的功能,这就为科学家运用算法来满足特殊实验提供可能。


    In a 2015 study, Cangelosi, Smith and their colleagues endowed an iCub with a neural network that gave it the ability to learn simple associations and found that it acquired new words more easily when objects’ names were consistently linked with specific bodily positions.



    association:

    联想

    associate:v 联系

    be associated with=be related to

    eg. He has a shelf full of things each of which has associations for him. (他的一个架子上摆满了东西,每一样都能勾起他的许多回忆)


    endow:

    赋予、赠与

    be endowed with sth=be born with

    eg. She was endowed with intelligence and wit. (她天资聪颖)

    endow sb/sth with sth=give sth to sb/sth

    eg. to endow sb with a responsibility(赋予某人以责任)


    句子结构:

    Cangelosi, Smith and their colleagues endowed an iCub.....and found that......

    it acquired new words.....when objects' names were.....

    注意:

    1  endowed an iCub with a neural network that gave it the ability to learn simple associations中that修饰neural network,give it the ability中的it指代前文中的iCub而非neural network

    2 found that it acquired....中的it也指代iCub,一句中的指代只能指向同一样东西


    意思:

    2015年的一项研究中,Cangelosi、Smith以及他们的同时给ICub赋予了一个神经网络,这个网络让机器人可以学习简单的联想。并且科学家们发现:当事物的名字和具体的身体部位相联系时,机器人学习新单词会更加简单。





    难度:

    ★★☆

    (个别长难句,少量专有名词)





    原文阅读请关注公众号 “英语学志”


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    发表于 2018-5-12 11:55:32 |显示全部楼层

    Manners of speaking

    讲话的方式




    关键词:


    verb/ noun form/ structure

    verb:动词

    noun:名词


    arouse emotion

    arouse:

    激发、引起

    eg. arouse interest(激起兴趣)

    eg. We left in the daytime so as not to arouse suspicion.(我们白天离开,以免引起怀疑)


    calming effect

    calm:

    平静

    eg. calm down


    on a six-point scale

    on the sacle (of):

    以...的规模

    一般在评分标准、评价标准中使用




    段落精读:


    Putting their heads together, they suspected that employing nouns (“I am in favour of theremoval of settlers”), rather than verbs (“I am in favour of removing settlers”), to convey support for policy positions would have a calming effect. The one is more like a statement of an abstract belief. The other is more like a prescription of a course of action and is thus, they hypothesised, more likely to arouse emotions.


    put ones‘ heads together:

    一起讨论,集思广益


    removal:

    移除

    removal of.....=remove.....


    prescription:

    指令

    prescribe:指定,规定

    eg. Many countries have yet to prescribe such limits (很多国家也对此类限制进行了规定)


    句子结构:

    1 they suspected that....

    2 employing nouns to convey support.... would have a calming effect

    注意:

    1 The one is more like a statement of an abstract belief. 这里的the ones 对应前一句中employing nouns,

    2 第二个the ones 对应第一句中rather than verbs中的verbs

    3 这两个the ones的指代通过出现顺序来判断指代,也可以通过逻辑来判断


    意思:

    一起商量之后,他们怀疑使用名词(例如:我倾向于定居者的转移,removal是名词)而不是动词(例如:我倾向于转移定居者,remove是动词)来表达对政治立场的支持会有一个很镇定的效果。名词的那个像是一个抽象想法的表达,动词的那个更像一个动作的指令,因此,他们猜想,动词的那个更有可能引发人的感情。



    After each statement was given, participants were asked to indicate, also on a six-point scale, the extent to which they would feel anger towards the state of Israel if the concession in question were actually granted.



    grant:

    同意,许可

    take sth. for granted  认为...理所当然

    eg. I was granted permission to visit the palace(我获准参观宫殿)


    句子结构:

    1 participants were asked to indicate the extent....

    2 they would feel anger.....if the concession.... were granted

    注意:

    1 also on a six-point scale 状语成分修饰indicate

    2 to which 定于从句修饰extent,to some extent是词组原来形式,意思为某种程度看,原句中extent to which指哪种程度


    意思:

    如果每一个表述中的让步政策被批准,参与者们对此感到的愤怒程度也需要根据六个等级进行评分。



    Given these results, Dr Reifen-Tagar and Dr Idan wondered whether the reduced angerinduced by the noun form would translate into reduced support for hostile action toward Palestinians.


    induce:

    引起,引诱

    eg. Music can induce a meditative state in the listener (音乐能够引导倾听者沉思)


    句子结构:

    1 Dr R 和Dr I wondered .....

    2 reduced anger....would translate into reduced support....

    注意:

    1 whether引导宾语从句

    2 induced by...修饰anger


    意思:

    根据这个结果,Riefen博士和Idan博士好奇:通过名词形式表示来减少愤怒情绪,是否可以被理解为对巴勒斯坦敌意行为的支持。





    难度:

    ★★★★

    (个别长难句,固定用法,指代需要注意)





    原文阅读,请关注公众号 “英语学志”


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    发表于 2018-5-14 12:00:25 |显示全部楼层

    Evolutionary psychology-------Facing reality

    进化心理学---面对现实




    关键词:


    evolutionary strategy:

    进化策略

    evolve:

    evolutionary的动词

    进化

    eg.The plumage of many male birds has evolved to attract females (许多雄鸟进化出鲜艳的羽毛是为了吸引雌鸟)


    strategy:

    策略

    =tactics


    masculine:

    男子气概的

    eg.Some women look more masculine than feminine (有些女性看起来更男性化一点)

    相对应的词:

    feminine

    女性化的


    menstrual cycle:

    女性的生理周期


    preference:

    选择

    prefer:

    选择 v.

    prefer A to B

    prefer to do rather than do

    ... be prefered




    段落精读:


    Other research suggests men with highly masculinised faces have strong immune systems, a desirable trait in children, but also tend to form weaker long-term bonds with romantic partners, and are thus more likely to desert and leave the mother, both literally andmetaphorically, holding the baby.


    metaphorically:

    隐喻地

    eg. This suit was lighter, both physically and metaphorically, than others I could have chosen.(无论在重量还是感觉上,这套西装比我可以选的其他西装都要轻一点)


    bond:

    纽带

    have bond with = have a relationship with


    句子结构:

    1 Other research suggests....

    2 men... have strong immune system....., but also tend to...., and are thus......

    注意:

    1 but also, and thus 和主句的主语相同,所以他们的主语men被省略

    2 英语中,逻辑关系透过连词和副词来表达,居中but also和and thus等连词表明的前后句间转折和承接因果的关系


    意思:

    还有研究表明:有明脸部有明显男性特征的男人有更加好的免疫系统,这对孩子来说是一个比较理想的特性;但是,这类男性也倾向与伴侣形成一种微弱的长期关系,因此,无论事实上还是感觉上,他们都更加容易抛弃孩子,离开孩子的妈妈。



    Some measured women’s hormone levels only once, rather than several times, and then compared how different women at different stages of their cycles responded to faces, rather than comparing how the same women at different stages of their cycles responded.


    hormone:

    荷尔蒙


    句子结构:

    1 Some measured ....., and then compared .....

    2 how different wonmen....responded....

    注意:

    1 同上句一样,and then 的主语和主句相同,因此省略

    2 rather than:而不是.....;表示比较,第一个rather than和前面only once 进行比较;第二个rather than 和前面compared how进行比较,这里rather than后面跟随的是独立主格结构(4.26独立主格结构知识介绍)。


    意思:

    有一些实验只测量一次女性荷尔蒙的水平,而不是测很多次;然后他们将不同女性在周期中不同阶段面对脸的反应进行对比,而不是将同一位女性在周期中不同阶段面的反应进行对比。





    难度:

    ★★☆

    (个别长难句,少量专有名词)



    阅读原文请关注:“英语学志”


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    发表于 2018-5-25 11:28:22 |显示全部楼层

    段落精读:


    It is three years since one local banker, Fernando Ulrich, called Portugal “a Chinese aircraft-carrier in Europe”— back then, Chinese buyers were already snapping up stakes in “strategic” local companies as quickly as the government could privatise them.



    aircraft-carrier:

    航空母舰

    aircraft:航天器


    privatise:

    私有化

    private:私人的

    in private:秘密地


    snap up:

    抢购

    eg. Every time we get a new dilvery of clothes, people are queuing to snap them up (每次新到一批服装时,人们都在排长队抢购)


    结构:

    It is three years since one local banker called .....

    Chinese buyers were already .....as quickly as.....

    注意:

    1 句型:It is three years since...,since后面的跟过去时

    2 破折号后面是对前文的解释说明,可以使用完整句子

    3 as quickly as和...一样快,一...就...


    意思:

    三年前,葡萄牙一位银行家Fernando,称葡萄牙为“欧洲的中国航空母舰”,那时候,中国买家已经准备抢购当地的战略公司的股票,抢购和葡萄牙政府将这些公司私有化几乎同时进行。



    Crucially, however, CTG won Chinese approval in advance, necessary these days given official restrictions on capital flowing abroad.



    capital flowing:

    资金流


    结构:

    CTG won Chinese approval in advance

    注意:

    1 necessary....是状语结构,对整句话进行补充说明,表示前文所做的事情现今是有必要的

    2 given that 固定用法,表示考虑到....


    意思:

    关键是,三峡已经提前获得了中国的许可,现如今政府对资金外流管控严格,这样的许可是很有必要的。



    Probably more important for Chinese companies, however, is learning how Europe’sliberalised energy markets work.

    into, and how much should on coming traffic be expected to brake?


    liberalise:

    使...自由化

    eg. China would have to abandon exchange controls and liberalise its financial system. (那样一来,中国将不得不放弃外汇管制,放开金融体系)

    liberty:自由

    the Satue of liberty 自由女神像


    结构:

    learning how ....is more important for.....

    注意:

    存在主谓倒装结构


    意思:

    然而,对中国公司而言,也许学习欧洲自由化的能源市场是如何运作的会更加重要。




    知识补充:


    Redes Energéticas Nacionais:

    葡萄牙国家电网


    Lisbon:

    里斯本

    里斯本(葡萄牙语:Lisboa),是葡萄牙共和国的首都。位于该国西部,城北为辛特拉山,城南临塔古斯河,距离大西洋不到12公里,是欧洲大陆最西端的城市,南欧著名的都市之一。


    Fernando Ulrich:

    BPI银行CEO乌里奇

    BPI银行

    葡萄牙投资银行是由Banco Fonsecas & Burnay、Banco Borges & Irmão 和the Banco de Fomento e Exterior三家银行于1998年5月25日合并而成的。

    Banco BPI银行拥有130万个客户,包括个人,公司,组织,透过500家分行,15家投资中心,家庭银行,电话银行和多种管道提供服务.其他还有投资银行,资产管理,保险等业务. BPI在安哥拉与莫三比克设有全资银行,此外在巴黎,马德里,日内瓦,汉堡,约翰尼斯堡,纽瓦克,加拉加斯等有重要葡侨社之城市设有银行.BPI还与卢森堡,加拿大,比利时,瑞典,英国,澳洲,巴西之银行或邮局,代理等签有协议.BPI在西班牙马德里与另一城市设代表处支援西葡两国业务及与安哥拉之关系。.


    EDP Energias:

    葡萄牙电力集团,是葡萄牙最大能源公司,也是全球第四大风能运营商、伊比利亚半岛第三大电力运营商和欧洲主要电力运营商之一。主营电力、燃气、燃料等业务,共有员工12245人,2008年总收入48.97亿欧元,除电力、燃气等能源领域外,该公司业务还延伸至供水、供气、工程、房地产等领域,其中发电、配电、贸易等业务已扩展到西班牙,美国、巴西等拉美国家以及中国澳门地区。请尊重别人的劳动成果,请不要复制粘贴标志情报局文章,制造互联网垃圾。



    原文阅读请关注“英语学志”


  • TA的每日心情
    开心
    2014-6-22 13:47:38
  • 签到天数: 7 天

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    发表于 2018-6-13 11:09:47 |显示全部楼层

    Retailing in China-----Manna from heaven

    中国零售业------来自天堂的恩赐




    难度:

    ★★

    (少量专有名词,用句比较简单)




    建议时间:

    7 分钟




    关键词:


    drone-delivery service

    drone:无人机

    复习(5.18)

    autonomous vehicles(AV):

    无人驾驶车辆=driverless car

    delivery:运送

    eg. Please pay for goods on delivery.(请货到付款)


    place order

    下订单

    order:订单,预定

    外卖:

    take-out

    堂吃:

    dine-in


    logistics chain

    物流链




    梗概:


    1 第一次无人机运送成功和第一个无人机基地建成

    2 无人机目前只在农村运行

    3 网络购物的推广有可能促使无人机运送服务和无人机运送网络的扩大

    4 无人机运输成本会随着规模扩大不断降低,甚至低于人力和卡车运输的成本

    5 京东的新鲜尝试是否成功值得期待









    段落精读:


    JD sees upside in providing fast, reliable delivery to the countryside, helping it to take a larger slice of this business.


    slice:

    一片

    eg. a slice of bread


    句子结构:

    JD sees upside

    注意:

    1 helping....是状语结构,修饰JD看到的上升的趋势

    2 help it..中的it指代的是主语JD


    意思:

    京东看到了上升的趋势,提供了快速可靠的运送服务,这帮助京东在商业中取得更大的蛋糕。



    It is still waiting to earn back its investment in drone-delivery infrastructure, although it says that making a delivery by drone costs a fifth of the price than by man and van, once the driver’s labour is taken into account.


    infrastructure:

    基础设施

    eg. The infrastucture, from hotels to transport, is old and decrepit.(从宾馆到交通站,所有的基础设施都已年久失修)


    结构:

    1 It is still waiting ....., although it says that .....

    2 making a delivery by drone costs a fifth....., once the driver's labour is taken into account

    注意:

    a fifth of....五分之一的....


    意思:

    京东仍然在等待赚回对无人机基础设施的投资,尽管京东声称:一旦将司机的人力成本算入,无人机运送费只是人工和卡车运送费的五分之一。



    Only one is, so he leaves the other two at the local shop and sets off on foot to the Jiang household.


    set off:

    出发

    eg. Nichols set off for his remote farmhouse (尼克尔斯动身去他偏僻的农舍了)


    结构:

    Only one is, so he leaves..... and sets off....

    注意:

    one指代的是前面收到包裹的三户中的一户


    意思:

    只有一个包裹主人在家,所以他留下其他两个包裹在店里,走路去了江的家。





    复习:


    Manna from heaven

    spade

    whirr

    mantis

    propeller

    whorl

    sling

    spectacle

    logistics chain

    practicality

    scaled up

    to date

    arch-rival

    slice

    infrastructure

    set off


    原文阅读请关注公众号“英语学志”



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