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[阅读资料] 【解决阅读青年大队】托福阅读题型各个击破——推断题   [复制链接]

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发表于 2011-11-21 12:20:10 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 天才狮子 于 2012-1-6 11:34 编辑


解决阅读青年大队系列相关链接:

【解决阅读青年大队】托福阅读题型各个击破——插空题


【解决阅读青年大队】托福阅读题型各个击破——词汇题

【解决阅读青年大队】托福阅读题型各个击破——句子简化题


【解决阅读青年大队】托福阅读题型各个击破——总结题


阅读大队的同志们大家好~好像好久没有写东西了哈这次讲讲托福阅读里面的推断题。

这个,不知道我是不是有点站着说话不腰疼,但是我觉得推断题好象是托福阅读里面比较容易的一种题目哈。所以我也说不出什么分类和复杂的步骤,搞定推断题的要点其实只有一个,那就是理清作者的逻辑。

在看懂每句话句义的基础上(这一部分工作的精髓karahana版主在上次的句子简化题专题里面已经说过了),还需要的是明白前后句之间的关系,了解他们在作者的论证或者叙述中所起的作用,在此之后,阅读选项,直接选出正确选项,或者排除所有错误选项得到正确选项就好。

干说起来也没有什么感觉,咱们来看几个例子。


【例1Paragraph 1: Groundwater is the word used to describe water thatsaturates the ground, filling all the available spaces. By far the mostabundant type of groundwater is meteoric water; this is the groundwater thatcirculates as part of the water cycle. Ordinary meteoric water is water thathas soaked into the ground from the surface, from precipitation (rain and snow)and from lakes and streams. There it remains, sometimes for long periods,before emerging at the surface again. At first thought it seems incredible thatthere can be enough space in the ―solid ground underfoot tohold all this water.

1. Which of the following can be inferredfrom paragraph 1 about the ground that we walk on?

○It cannot hold rainwater for long periodsof time.

○It prevents most groundwater fromcirculating.

○It has the capacity to store large amountsof water.

○It absorbs most of the water it containsfrom rivers.

这个题目其实只需要关注段落中的最后一句就可以了,因为这是唯一一句据提到了“我们脚下的土地”的,句中说,‘乍一想起来,我们脚下结实的土地居然能有空间容纳这么多的水,这似乎有点不可思议。’这句中透露的一个事实就是,我们脚下的土地就是能容纳这么多水,于是C选项正确。

【例2Paragraph 1: The transition from forest to treeless tundra on amountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just afew tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by lowshrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the uppertimberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lowertimberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge,usually because of a lack of moisture.

3. Which of the following canbe inferred from paragraph 1 about both the upper and lower timberlines?

○Both are treeless zones.

○Both mark forest boundaries.

○Both are surrounded by desertareas.

○Both suffer from a lack of moisture.

段落中已经说明,upper timberline是树林的上端与草地、灌木丛的分界线,而lower timberline是树林下端与草原或是沙漠的分界线,于是upper and lower timberlines的共同点就是,他们都是树林与其他地区的分界线,也就是树林的边界,B选项正确。

【例3Paragraph 5: Even the kind ofstability defined as simple lack of change is not always associated withmaximum diversity. At least in temperate zones, maximum diversity is oftenfound in mid-successional stages, not in the climax community. Once a redwoodforest matures, for example, the kinds of species and the number of individualsgrowing on the forest floor are reduced. In general, diversity, by itself, doesnot ensure stability. Mathematical models of ecosystems likewise suggest thatdiversity does not guarantee ecosystem stability—just the opposite, in fact. Amore complicated system is, in general, more likely than a simple system tobreak down. A fifteen-speed racing bicycle is more likely to break down than achild’s tricycle.

7. Which of the following canbe inferred from paragraph 5 about redwood forests?

○They become less stable asthey mature.

○They support many specieswhen they reach climax.

○They are found in temperatezones.

○They have reduced diversity duringmid-successional stages.

这个题目其实我在最初做的时候没有选出答案,因为A,B,D都明显有问题:A正好说反了,生态系统成熟之后会更稳定;B也不对,段落中已经明说红树林在顶峰时多样性已经下降了;D也正好跟文意相反,过渡时期是生态系统多样性处于顶峰的时间。但是最初我觉得C似乎没被提到过,于是就没选出来,后来才发现了专讲红树林的那句与上句之间有个坑人的“for example”的关系,于是红树林肯定是属于上一句所提到的temperate zone里的,C选项正确。


既然碰到,在这里就介绍一下托福阅读里的“不错即是对”原则,托福是很严谨、成熟的考试,阅读题目中的错误选项往往都被设计成与原文逻辑有直接矛盾,所以如果你像我一样碰到了三个选项明显能看出问题而第四个选项拿不准的状况(不仅限于推断题,所有阅读题目都适用),那基于托福考试的特点,你完全可以直接选择那个没有发现错误的选项,然后进入下一道题,这样基本可以保证你的选择正确,而且节约了答题的时间。


【例4Paragraph 2: One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings istheir location. Other rock paintings—for example, those of Bushmen in SouthAfrica—are either located near cave entrances or completely in the open. Cavepaintings in France and Spain, however, are in recesses and caverns far removedfrom original cave entrances. This means that artists were forced to work incramped spaces and without sources of natural light. It also implies thatwhoever made them did not want them to be easily found. Since cave dwellersnormally lived close to entrances, there must have been some reason why so manygenerations of Lascaux cave dwellers hid their art.

5. What can be inferred fromparagraph 2 about cave painters in France and Spain?

○They also painted rocksoutside caves.

○They did not live close tothe cave entrances.

○They developed their ownsources of light to use while painting.

○Their painting practices did not last formany years.

此题似乎异常简单,段落中有一句“This means that artists were forced to work in cramped spaces andwithout sources of natural light.”画家们作画的时候必须在狭窄的、没有自然光源的空间里作画,于是推断出西班牙与法国的壁画画家已经是有某种自然光源以外的光源,C选项正确。

【例5Paragraph 4: Very little light filters through the canopy of leavesand branches in a rain forest to reach ground level—or close to the ground—andat those levels the yellow-to-green wavelengths predominate. A signal might bemost easily seen if it is maximally bright. In the green-to yellow lightingconditions of the lowest levels of the forest, yellow and green would be thebrightest colors, but when an animal is signaling, these colors would not bevery visible if the animal was sitting in an area with a yellowish or greenishbackground. The best signal depends not only on its brightness but also on howwell it contrasts with the background against which it must be seen. In thispart of the rain forest, therefore, red and orange are the best colors forsignaling, and they are the colors used in signals by the ground-walkingAustralian brush turkey. This species, which lives in the rain forests andscrublands of the east coast of Australia, has a brown to-black plumage withbare, bright-red skin on the head and neck and a neck collar of orange-yellowloosely hanging skin. During courtship and aggressive displays, the turkeyenlarges its colored neck collar by inflating sacs in the neck region and thenflings about a pendulous part of the colored signaling apparatus as it utterscalls designed to attract or repel. This impressive display is clearly visiblein the light spectrum illuminating the forest floor.

9. Which of the following canbe inferred from paragraph 4 about yellow and green colors compared with redand orange colors at the bottom of the forest?

○Yellow and green are bettercolors for signaling than red and orange colors.

○Orange and red are brightercolors than yellow and green.

○Yellow and green are likelyto be more common in the background than red and orange.

○Orange and red colors do not contrast aswell with the forest floor as yellow and green do.

题目涉及到的是前半段关于光信号颜色的选择问题的讨论,作者说,林中低处的光多数是黄色或是绿色的,这两种光的亮度最高,但是林中低处的背景色也是黄色和绿色,所以以这两种光作为光信号颜色的话,与背景的对比度就很不理想,相比之下,橙色和红色就更胜一筹了,于是选项中ABD都与文意相反,C选项正确。


写本文的时候我一直都在问自己“推断题真有这么简单吗?”生怕自己是站着说话不腰疼,但是在TPO里面转了几圈之后发现推断题真的是思路很简单清晰,只要大家读懂作者的意思,这部分的题目就基本都没有太多难度。当然,如果有什么我遗漏了的问题,大家可以在下面提问,我和其他几位版主会尽量回答的~





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发表于 2011-11-21 13:33:24 |显示全部楼层
sky太帅~·阅读题型,推断题搞定了哇~,狂顶~好贴不能沉了!

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发表于 2011-11-21 13:54:23 |显示全部楼层
哟嘻~~学习~~~~

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    可以整系列贴啦!咩哈哈!

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    发表于 2011-11-22 19:10:27 |显示全部楼层
    托福
    其实感觉推断题之所以简单是因为排除法很奏效,信息倒是不太好直接找,个人观点

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    O(∩_∩)O谢谢

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    总结得很好

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    顶啊!在首考失利后第一次看到这么激励的文章...
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    谢谢!有用呢!

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